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Lizzie Caswall Smith specialised in theatre and society subjects in the early 1900s. She first exhibited at the Royal Photographic Society in 1902 and then again in 1913. From 1902-1920 she operated the Gainsborough Studio at 309 Oxford Street. She was likely trained by her brother, John Caswall Smith (1867-1902), who ran a studio at 305 Oxford Street. Smith was a supporter of the suffrage movement and photographed many suffragettes including Christabel Pankhurst (1880-1958) and Flora Drummond (1878-1949), images that were then made into postcards. As well as this, many Edwardian stage performers such as Lily Elsie (1886-1962), Billie Burke (1884-1970), Gertrude Elliott (1874-1950) and the renowned 'Gibson Girl' Camille Clifford (1885-1971) were photographed by Smith.

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